Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, founded in 1926 Advisory Council of Science and Industry, many important inventions. Csiro Sites in Australia, Mexico and France. To help Australian Federal Government and Australian people, research programs with universities and business such as:
CSIRO extensive work: inventions, applied programs, prevailing resources, improved systems, advanced methods, better procedures, revolutionary processes, groundbreaking work at new facilities. Achievements by decade are as follows: csiro Climate Adaptation, Energy Transformed, Food Futures, Future Manufacturing, Light Metals, Minerals Down Under, Preventative Health, Sustainable Agriculture, Water for a Healthy Country, Wealth from Oceans
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Timeline of CSIRO Developments
Bitter Disease Stopped
A table of action was made which set out when fruit should be picked. This eradicated the disease of brown, corky flecks on fruit.
Rickly Pear Controlled
This weed was introduced to make dye from cochineal that infested it. An Argentinian moth Cactoblastis cactorum was brought in to eat the cactus. Csiro discoveries
Black Disease Vaccine
Infectious necrotic hepatitis was deadly to sheep. The vaccine was made from strains of B. oedematiens left after liver fluke infestation. It was grown in animal stomach tissue. This was then treated with formalin. csiro australian inventions
Bovine Pleuropneumonia Vaccine
Fever, anorexia and coughing resulted from this infectious disease. A test was found to identify infection. Arthur Turner developed a vaccine. csiro
Coast Disease Cured
Cobalt deficiency was the cause of this wasting disease affecting Merino sheep. Supplementing their diet with cobalt solved the problem. siro australian inventions
The road to making this work was very long. In 1947 dry ice and silver iodine seeded into clouds caused it to rain in the Snowy Mountains. csiro
Radar at Darwin
With the threat of invasion in WWII, radar was installed in 1942 at Darwin and attempted raids were foiled after the air attack of 19 February. Csiro discoveries
Plants were more effectively classified when Len Webb, Geoff Tracey and Bill Williams formulated the grid system of Rainforest Management. Csiro australian inventions
Siratro Cattle Feed
Carrying capacity was one per three hectares. After Jack Griffiths introduced this tropical legume, only one hectare was needed per cow. csiro
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy
Australia's scientific instrument industry took off when Alan Walsh made a machine in 1952 which analysed the presence of chemicals. Csiro inventions
Australia's Digital Computer
The world's fourth computer was made in 1949. It changed banking and weather forecasting. Music was also created with this computer. Csiro discoveries
Hercosett Shrink Proofing
Wool is shrink-proofed in the Chlorine-Hercosett process where resin is applied and then heated to put a film over the fibers thus stopping protruding scales from tangling - developed 1950s, commercialized in 1967.
Lambing Rates Improved
Older ewes produce more lambs. The survival rate is higher for lambs from multiple births which is positive for this. Dr Helen Newton Turner pioneered this work.
Myxomatosis Rabbit Control
Australia's sheep industry recovered from hard times when a plague of rabbits was controlled by introduction of the Myxomatosis virus in 1950.
Permanent Pleat Si-Ro-Set
A resin was used by Arthur Farnworth in 1957 to put a permanent crease in trousers and skirts made of wool fibers. Resin chemically altered the wool's chemical structure. Then heat was used to set the pleat. csiro australian inventions
Waterfowl Production Rates
Murray-Darling River fluctuates between flood and drought. Harry Firth found that high waterfowl reproduction was not correlated with high water levels. Csiro inventions
While the Queen was visiting Australia in 1963 officials turned to CSIRO to protect her from swarming flies. Doug Waterhouse made a repellant later called Aerogard. Doug identified Aerogard's main ingredient, dimethyl phthalate, in 1943.
George Bornemissza controlled Bush flies by introducing the dung beetle to break up cow pads in 1967. It also improved soil fertility. csiro
A deficiency of iodine leads to goitre and mental retardation. It was found by Basil Hetzel that iodine injections prevented mental problems in babies if it was done for mothers before pregnancy.
Parks Telescope and the Moon Landing
The momentous moon landing could not have been done in 1969 without the contribution by the Parkes Radio Telescope. Its design was later replicated for NASA's tracking stations.
Repco Self-Twist Spinner
Roving strands of worsted yarn are drafted. Then two reciprocating friction rollers make alternating twists with pairs being brought together. Two are paired again to make a four-yarn product, based upon work done by David Henshaw.
Sirex Wasp Control
A fungus was caused in pine trees by the sirex wasp. Eradication was achieved by Robin Bedding who brought in unsegmented nematode worms that killed the wasps.
Softly Laundry Detergent
In 1958 Tom Pressly developed a laundry detergent for washing woollen blankets at high temperatures. Laundry was then soft after washing, not hard or rough and no longer a source of infection.
Cape Grim Data Base
The Tasmanian region of Cape Grim was the location for storage of historical data on greenhouse gases and ozone depletion. Samples were stored in stainless steel flasks containing pristine air then stored.
This insecticide, nontoxic to fish and mammals, was developed by George Nolan. It has been widely used in Asia since 1978 to control pests in rice paddies.
Fire Retardant in Woollens
Qantas began using wool for aircraft seats after Tom Pressley applied fire retardant to this material. The scientist set new Australian Safety Standards in relation to flammability for children's clothing. csiro
Interscan Microwave Landing System
Brian Cooper, Paul Wild, Harry Minnett and Dennis Cooper a team at CSIRO introduced an aircraft landing system based on microwaves after work on radar and radio astronomy.
Sirolan BAP Shrink Proofing
This process is used in the making of shrink resistant, minimum-iron woollen garments. By this dry pad system destabilized solids and wax are removed using sodium bisulfite and polyurethane resulting in shrink resistance in wool.
SIROSMELT Metal Smelting
Gas was injected into a molten slag bath at 1,200°C in the process of producing copper, iron, lead and zinc. Smelting became cleaner more efficient and waste could be used to make other products.
1970s csiro australian inventions
A4 Digital Audio Processor Chip
This is a silicon VLSI chip for audio applications that is cheap enough for general use. It was designed by Jon Ables and has been successfully used for speaker systems.
Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA)
A virtual telescope hundreds of kilometers wide was created when existing telescopes at Parkes and Coonabarabran were connected to the new six antenna ATCA array at Narrabri.
This technology measures coal quality on-line as the ore moves along a belt. Computers analyse coal for ash, water and energy levels with radiation emitters and detectors.
Paper banknotes were too easy to counterfeit so the idea came to mind to make money from another material - polymer. It became possible to make see through panels with holograms.
Relenza Flu Vaccine
Tamiflu was developed in research by Mark von Itzstein in 1996 on protein structure, particularly the neuraminidase work on swine flu and bird flu. Neuraminidase is obstructed from releasing new virus particles.
Rust Fungi Control
Two genes were identified by Dr Jeff Ellis that gave protection from rust fungi. A breeding program involving selection of rust resistant cereal was instigated. Csiro discoveries
This aquatic weed grows rapidly and blocks waterways. A weevil, Cyrtobagou salviniae, was introduced to Lake Moondarra in Queensland and in less than two years the infestation was controlled.
Sirospun Yarn Spinning
This was a major step forward in 1986 for the Australian wool industry. Simple equipment spun two-strand yarn together which is much stronger in regard to centrifugal forces so it can be spun at a higher rate.
Twinsplicer Yarn Spinning
This method of spinning yarn ends together was commercialized by Savio SpA in 1981. This is superior to the previous knot system of spinning. Finished product strength is the same as the original yarn (of all types).
1980s csiro discoveries
Deep Ocean Floor Exploration
A new mining industry on the ocean floor began with research into ore-forming processes on the seabed. Findings were later applied to ore detection on land. Undersea volcanic hydrothermal sites were rich in gold and copper.
Gene Silencing Hairpin RNAi
A way was found to silence genes by Wayne Gerlach and Jim Haseloff in 1986. By switching genes off, the way that they work can be determined. Csiro inventions
Hendra Virus Identified
An illness arose in Queensland which baffled scientists. A trainer and 14 horses were dead within a few days. From samples taken a new virus was identified. Unfortunately, no treatment has been found to date.
This new form of linseed is more stable than its predecessors due to lower alpha-linoleic acid which makes it suitable for animal and human consumption. A patent was granted in 1993. csiro
Low Emission Motor Vehicles
The Holden ECOmmodore and aXcessaustralia motor cars were manufactured in 2000 from research work done in the 1990s on fuel-efficient, low emission technology. Fuel consumption was cut by half.
Port Phillip Bay Environmental Study
Predictive outcomes from regional development became possible from analysis of Port Phillip Bay which is home to 3.2 million people. Data on toxicity, nutrient levels and ecology were taken over four years from 1992.
Sirolan CF Fertilizer from Wooll
Suspended solids in effluent from raw wool are removed by chemical flocculation involving coagulent and polymer solution then pumped into a clarifier. Flocs settle as sludge which is used for fertilizer.
Solospun Weaving Attachment
In this process commercialized in 1998 an attachment is fitted to spinning frames. The procedure locks yarn fiber ends in place making it ideal for warp of weft weaving. The product is finer than the two-fold weaving yarns.
A new material for sportswear garments was developed called Sportwool which is elastic and protects the wearer from the sun. Polyester is on the outside with wool on the inside. The clothing carries away sweat thus keeping an athlete cool. It was first used at the 1998 Commonwealth Games. csiro
A breakthrough for laptop computer users was made in wireless LANs. People can now use computers without the problem of wire connection. Many devices in the home use this technology.
X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging and XuM Microscopy
Medicine has been improved with clearer images of ligaments, nerves, cartilage and tendons in research done by Steve Wilkins and his team. The X-ray ultra-Microscope (XuM) has been developed from this technology.
Air Cargo Scanner
Neutrons and gamma-rays are used to view non-metal objects in airport luggage. Drugs and explosives show up more clearly because the actual shape of the object can be seen.
Annodex Digital Media
Dr Silvia Webb noted that people wanted audio and video to be interactive in a web page. An open source CMWebbrowser using Annodex media has links within audiovideo to other audiovideo, then back again to initial content
Australian Cereal Rust Control Program
Dr Evans Lagudah has found markers for resistance against fungi disease and identified the genes (Lr34) used by fungi to spread diseases such as powdery mildew, stripe rust, stem rust and leaf rust. The goal is stacking resistant genes., i.e. Breeding disease resistant wheat.
Bollgard II Cotton Strain
This insect resistant strain of cotton was created by putting two genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton. A caterpillar, Helicoverpa, eats toxic proteins that is produced by the cotton and dies. Ingard cotton containing one gene was released in 1996.
Dr Chris Prideaux developed the Bovilus MH vaccine for the Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) in cattle in 2004. The bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) causes the sickness mainly in feed lot cattle.
Bt Control of Worms in Livestock
Andrew Kotze's work involves the use of bacillus thuringiensis insecticide on pasture to control nematodes such as barber's pole worms infestation in livestock. The current use of anthelmintic drugs contaminates meat.
Carbon Nanotube Yarn Sheets
CSIRO and the University of Texas identified a way to make yarn from nanotubes in 2005. Commercial manufacture is possible and yarn sheets are stronger than steel. Uses include LEDs, electric sensors and artificial muscles.
Double Pulsar Discovery
The Parkes Radio Telescope was a major contributor to the discovery of the double pulsar system in 2003. Five countries were involved in the project that identified one star orbiting another.
Funnelback Panoptic Search engine
This search engine is effectively used for retrieving information from large organizations from databases of millions of items in different formats, namely, HTML, XML, PDF, Word, Excel and images. Csiro inventions
This is a SQUID magnetic tensor gradiometer to detect magnetic minerals below the ocean floor specifically designed to be used from the air. This is part of a concerted effort by CSIRO to create exploration mechanisms for use on land, sea and in the air under the OCEANMAG umbrella.
Gigabit Super WiFi
A wireless network operating in the extremely fast 6 gigabit range was in operation at CSIRO. It is much faster that existing WiFi. Data transfer speeds are phenomenal at 60 Hz. Computer data WiFi will soon travel as fast as cable.
Because of the importance of pollination from European honeybees, pests and diseases of this valuable insect were investigated. A third of what we eat is vegetables and fruit pollinated by bees.
Dr Swee Liang Mak led a team which made blocks of aerated cement. They were found to be impact resistant, non-flammable and effective as insulation. Moreover, being very light they were easy to transport.
Insulin-IGF Receptor Structure
Colin Ward and his team mapped the 3D structure of the insulin receptor on a cell in 2006. Protein was crystallised then bombarded with X-rays. This opens the way for new therapies in treating diabetes.
2000s csiro inventions
Landguard Pesticide Residue Treatment
A treatment for reducing pesticide residue was formulated, winning the DuPont Innovation Award in 2006. Cotton irrigation waste water was treated and in 30 minutes organophosphate levels were reduced by 99 per cent.
Single, dual and triple axis magnetic sensors are used to measure magnetic fields much weaker than the earth's magnetic field. Deeply buried deposits of nickel for example can be detected clearly separated from surrounding material. Similar system to that used in OCEANMAG below.
This "breadbasket" region for Australian vegetables was analysed by Tom Hatton and Bill Young. A computer model for assessing possible future climate change on groundwater and surface water resources resulted.
NovoSorb Biodegradable Polymer
Healing of damaged cartilage and bone fractures is problemmatic. In this procedure perfected in 2005 a scaffold is created with a bonding agent around which new tissue forms. Ultimately the scaffold is absorbed by the body.
Magnetic Gradient Tensor Measurements (MGTM) can be taken to survey shallow areas of the ocean to detect sources of minerals. OCEANMAG calculates detected and predicted magnetic fields to determine where minerals are.
QEMSCAN Mineral Analysis
X-rays together with an electron microscope rapidly analyses the mineral makeup of samples automatically, without being monitored. It is widely used in the mining sector where knowledge of what amount of valuable minerals is in a sample is paramount.
Rubber from Resilin
Insects jump around using an elastic protein similar to gluten and elastic. Spiders use it to make webs. A team at CSIRO found a way to make this artificially in the lab in 2005 from fruitfly. The substance is 97 per cent elastic.
SilviScan Wood Evaluation
Dr Robert Evan's system of analysing wood and wood fiber ascertains the most suitable end use of the selected material. Properties can be measured 1,000 times faster. Assessments are used for tree improvement programs.
Wool fiber is measured for quality by using portable instruments using the laserscan system. Samples are taken when sheep are shorn. They are then tested before the wool classer does his job.
CSIRO made a machine that measures the quality of small pieces of fiber taken from different clothing material. Fiber diameter, curvature and distribution are important to measure market quality.
High voltage, high wattage capacitors store electricity then quickly release it. They are constructed using nano-technology. Being more efficient they can increase battery life.
This process of casting high-integrity magnesium alloy makes a lightweight product at low cost that is friendly to the environment and energy efficient. The finished product can be welded. It is ideal for production of motor vehicles.
Total Wellbeing Diet
This guide to losing weight, took Australia by storm. Peter Clifton and Manny Noakes did research and recorded their findings: those who ate a high protein diet lost weight while others who ate carbohydrate rich food did not.
Lan Lam put supercapacitors to work in batteries which were 70 percent cheaper to produce and gave 50 per cent more power. Charge and discharge was much quicker thus improving an electric vehicle's acceleration and braking.
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