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Australian technology gained from the manufacture of Aspirin by George Nicholas.
Hover over a CSIRO invention titles below to see more information and links
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, founded in 1926 Advisory Council of Science and Industry, many important inventions.        Csiro Sites in Australia, Mexico and France. To help Australian Federal Government and Australian people, research programs with universities and business such as:
CSIRO extensive work:  inventions, applied programs, prevailing resources, improved systems, advanced methods, better procedures, revolutionary processes, groundbreaking work at new facilities.   Achievements by decade are as follows: csiro Climate Adaptation, Energy Transformed, Food Futures, Future Manufacturing, Light Metals, Minerals Down Under, Preventative Health, Sustainable Agriculture, Water for a Healthy Country, Wealth from Oceans
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Hover over CSIRO invention or discovery titles to see more information and links
Timeline of CSIRO Developments
Bitter Disease Stopped                                                                          
A table of action was made which set out when fruit should be picked.  This eradicated  the disease of brown, corky flecks on fruit.
Rickly Pear Controlled                                                            
This weed was introduced to make dye from cochineal that infested it.   An Argentinian moth Cactoblastis cactorum was brought in to eat the cactus.                   Csiro discoveries
Control of bitter-pit in apples. Bitter disease stopped.
Irradication of  prickly pear controlled.
Black Disease Vaccine                                        
Infectious necrotic hepatitis was deadly to sheep.  The vaccine was made from strains of B. oedematiens left after liver fluke infestation.  It was grown in animal stomach tissue.  This was then treated with formalin.   csiro australian inventions                        
Bovine Pleuropneumonia Vaccine                                         
Fever, anorexia and coughing resulted from this infectious disease.  A test was found to identify infection.  Arthur Turner developed a vaccine.                                                              csiro
Coast Disease Cured                                          
Cobalt deficiency was the cause of this wasting disease affecting Merino sheep.  Supplementing their diet with cobalt solved the problem.                                              siro australian inventions
Black disease vaccine for sheep.
Arthur Turner grew C.B.P.P. organisms in a V-F heart muscle medium. Bovine pleuropneumonia vaccine.
Coast disease cured.  Sheep found to have mineral deficiency.
Cloud Seeding                                              
The road to making this work was very long.  In 1947 dry ice and silver iodine seeded into clouds caused it to rain in the Snowy Mountains.   csiro
Radar at Darwin                                              
With the threat of invasion in WWII, radar was installed in 1942 at Darwin and attempted raids were foiled after the air attack of 19 February.                               Csiro discoveries
Rainforest Grid                                                
Plants were more effectively classified when Len Webb, Geoff Tracey and Bill Williams formulated the grid system of Rainforest Management.                 Csiro australian inventions
Siratro Cattle Feed                                              
Carrying capacity was one per three hectares.  After Jack Griffiths introduced this tropical legume, only one hectare was needed per cow.                                                  csiro                               
Silver iodide was injected into clouds in a dry ice formulation.  Cloud seeding.
Successful interception of Japanese war aircraft with Radar in Darwin.
Timber was classified with card-sorting sets in a rainforest grid.
Legume bred from two strains of Mexican Phaseolus atropurpureus.  Siratro cattle feed.
Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy                                                          
Australia's scientific instrument industry took off when Alan Walsh made a machine in 1952 which analysed the presence of chemicals.                                         Csiro inventions
Australia's Digital Computer                                                       
The world's fourth computer was made in 1949.  It changed banking and weather forecasting.  Music was also created with this computer.                           Csiro discoveries
Hercosett Shrink Proofing                                                   
Wool is shrink-proofed in the Chlorine-Hercosett process where resin is applied and then heated to put a film over the fibers thus stopping protruding scales from tangling - developed 1950s, commercialized in 1967.                                                                                                                                                    
Lambing Rates Improved                                                                                        
Older ewes produce more lambs.  The survival rate is higher for lambs from multiple births which is positive for this.  Dr Helen Newton Turner pioneered this work.                                      
Myxomatosis Rabbit Control                                               
Australia's sheep industry recovered from hard times when a plague of rabbits was controlled by introduction of the Myxomatosis virus in 1950.
Permanent Pleat Si-Ro-Set                                              
A resin was used by Arthur Farnworth in 1957 to put a permanent crease in trousers and skirts made of wool fibers.  Resin chemically altered the wool's chemical structure.  Then heat was used to set the pleat. csiro australian inventions                                                          
Waterfowl Production Rates
Murray-Darling River fluctuates between flood and drought.  Harry Firth found that high waterfowl reproduction was not correlated with high water levels.    Csiro inventions
Analyzes metals in mineral exploration.  Atomic absorption spectroscopy.
The Australian digital computer CSIRAC was the world's fourth.
Villawool treated garments to seal the wool fibre with resin in 1967.  Hercosett shrink proofing.
Siroset allows creases to be done with normal pressing.  Pleat is made by heat setting chemically altered wool fibres. Si-ro-set.
There was more invertebre detritivore as waterfowl food from rotting vegetation when floodwaters dropped.  Waterfowl production rates.
It was found that overall lambing rates improved by increasing the survival of lambs from multiple births
Introduction of Myxomatosis controlled rabbits in Australia from 1950 until the 1980s
While the Queen was visiting Australia in 1963 officials turned to CSIRO to protect her from swarming flies.  Doug Waterhouse made a repellant later called Aerogard.   Doug identified Aerogard's main ingredient, dimethyl phthalate, in 1943.
Dung Beetle                                             
George Bornemissza controlled Bush flies by introducing the dung beetle to break up cow pads in 1967.  It also improved soil fertility.                                         csiro
Iodine Deficiency                                                                                                                
A deficiency of iodine leads to goitre and mental retardation.  It was found by Basil Hetzel that iodine injections prevented mental problems in babies if it was done for mothers before pregnancy.                                                                                                    
Parks Telescope and the Moon Landing                                       
The momentous moon landing could not have been done in 1969 without the contribution by the Parkes Radio Telescope.  Its design was later replicated for NASA's tracking stations.
Repco Self-Twist Spinner
Roving strands of worsted yarn are drafted. Then two reciprocating friction rollers make alternating twists with pairs being brought together. Two are paired again to make a four-yarn product, based upon work done by David Henshaw.
Sirex Wasp Control                                                                                                              
A fungus was caused in pine trees by the sirex wasp.  Eradication was achieved by Robin Bedding who brought in unsegmented nematode worms that killed the wasps.
Softly Laundry Detergent                                                
In 1958 Tom Pressly developed a laundry detergent for washing woollen blankets at high temperatures.  Laundry was then soft after washing, not hard or rough and no longer a source of infection.
CSIRO's Doug Waterhouse actually created the Aerogard formula in 1943.
Platt Saco Lowell used the Repco Self Twist Spinner making yarn 15 times faster.
Cattle were introduced into Australia: native dung beetles could not deal with their dung
Iodine deficiency can easily be prevented.
The Moon Landing was a success because of the Parkes Telescope.
Nematode that kills the sirex wasp can be frozen but it remains alive.  Sirex wasp control.
Softly laundry detergent is now an established household product
Cape Grim Data Base                                                   
The Tasmanian region of Cape Grim was the location for storage of historical data on greenhouse gases and ozone depletion.  Samples were stored in stainless steel flasks containing pristine air then stored.
Cycloprothrin Insecticide                                              
This insecticide, nontoxic to fish and mammals, was developed by George Nolan.  It has been widely used in Asia since 1978 to control pests in rice paddies. 
Fire Retardant in Woollens                                              
Qantas began using wool for aircraft seats after Tom Pressley applied fire retardant to this material.  The scientist set new Australian Safety Standards in relation to flammability for children's clothing.    csiro                                                                                                             
Interscan Microwave Landing System                                           
Brian Cooper, Paul Wild, Harry Minnett and Dennis Cooper a team at CSIRO introduced an aircraft landing system based on microwaves after work on radar and radio astronomy.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
Sirolan BAP Shrink Proofing                                             
This process is used in the making of shrink resistant, minimum-iron woollen garments.  By this dry pad system destabilized solids and wax are removed using sodium bisulfite and polyurethane resulting in shrink resistance in wool.
SIROSMELT Metal Smelting                                                                      
Gas was injected into a molten slag bath at 1,200°C in the process of producing copper, iron, lead and zinc.  Smelting became cleaner more efficient and waste could be used to make other products.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          
Superwash commercialised the Sirolan BAP Shrink Proofing process.  A low-reactive chorine solution is applied to batches of garments.
The Cape Grim data base was the first to analyse chlorofluorocarbons.
Nippon Kayaku of Japan commercialized Cycloprothrin insecticide with CSIRO
Many children have been saved from severe burns with fire retardent in woollens.
The Intterscan Microwave Landing System set up microwave research in Australia.
This nonferrous smelting process is used worldwide.  SIROSMELT metal smelting.
1970s                                                                                                                                                                                csiro australian inventions
A4 Digital Audio Processor Chip                                              
This is a silicon VLSI chip for audio applications that is cheap enough for general use.  It was designed by Jon Ables  and has been successfully used for speaker systems.                                                                                                  
Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA)                                              
A virtual telescope hundreds of kilometers wide was created when existing telescopes at Parkes and Coonabarabran were connected to the new six antenna ATCA array at Narrabri.
This technology measures coal quality on-line as the ore moves along a belt.  Computers analyse coal for ash, water and energy levels with radiation emitters and detectors.
Polymer Banknotes                                      
Paper banknotes were too easy to counterfeit so the idea came to mind to make money from another material - polymer.  It became possible to make see through panels with holograms.
Relenza Flu Vaccine                                      
Tamiflu was developed in research by Mark von Itzstein in 1996 on protein structure, particularly the neuraminidase work on swine flu and bird flu.  Neuraminidase is obstructed from releasing new virus particles.
Rust Fungi Control                                                           
Two genes were identified by Dr Jeff Ellis that gave protection from rust fungi.  A breeding program involving selection of rust resistant cereal was instigated. Csiro discoveries
Salvinia Control                                                 
This aquatic weed grows rapidly and blocks waterways.  A weevil, Cyrtobagou salviniae, was introduced to Lake Moondarra in Queensland and in less than two years the infestation was controlled.
Sirospun Yarn Spinning                                                 
This was a major step forward in 1986 for the Australian wool industry.  Simple equipment spun two-strand yarn together which is much stronger in regard to centrifugal forces so it can be spun at a higher rate.
Twinsplicer Yarn Spinning                                              
This method of spinning yarn ends together was commercialized by Savio SpA in 1981.   This is superior to the previous knot system of spinning.  Finished product strength is the same as the original yarn (of all types).
Zinser a German firm first used the Sirospun yarn spinning system commercially.
Low-cost speaker technology became possible with the A4 digital audio processor chip.
Two hundred scientists meet each year to use the Australia telescope compact array ATCA.
Quality control of coal using coalscan.
Polymer banknote currency has been introduced in many countries
This Relenza flu vaccine combats all types of flu.
CSIRO is still breeding new kinds of disease-resistant wheat to perfect rust fungi control.
Tropical countries have used the weevil to control Salvinia weed.
Yarn is smoother with improved texture when twinsplicer yarn spinning is used.
1980s                                                                                                                                                                                                     csiro discoveries
Deep Ocean Floor Exploration                                                                                         
A new mining industry on the ocean floor began with research into ore-forming processes on the seabed.  Findings were later applied to ore detection on land.  Undersea volcanic hydrothermal sites were rich in gold and copper.                              
Gene Silencing Hairpin RNAi                                                                                             
A way was found to silence genes by Wayne Gerlach and Jim Haseloff in 1986.  By switching genes off, the way that they work can be determined.            Csiro inventions
Hendra Virus Identified                                                                                                      
An illness arose in Queensland which baffled scientists.  A trainer and 14 horses were dead within a few days.  From samples taken a new virus was identified. Unfortunately, no treatment has been found to date.
Linola Flax                                                       
This new form of linseed is more stable than its predecessors due to lower alpha-linoleic acid which makes it suitable for animal and human consumption.  A patent was granted in 1993.    csiro
Low Emission Motor Vehicles                                                                                            
The Holden ECOmmodore and aXcessaustralia motor cars were manufactured in 2000 from research work done in the 1990s on fuel-efficient, low emission technology.  Fuel consumption was cut by half.                                                                                                                                       
Port Phillip Bay Environmental Study                                             
Predictive outcomes from regional development became possible from analysis of Port Phillip Bay which is home to 3.2 million people.  Data on toxicity, nutrient levels and ecology were taken over four years from 1992.                                                                        
Sirolan CF Fertilizer from Wooll                                                                                        
Suspended solids in effluent from raw wool are removed by chemical flocculation involving coagulent and polymer solution then pumped into a clarifier.  Flocs settle as sludge which is used for fertilizer.
Solospun Weaving Attachment                                                                                        
In this process commercialized in 1998 an attachment is fitted to spinning frames.  The procedure locks yarn fiber ends in place making it ideal for warp of weft weaving.  The product is finer than the two-fold weaving yarns.
A new material for sportswear garments was developed called Sportwool which is elastic and protects the wearer from the sun.  Polyester is on the outside with wool on the inside.  The clothing carries away sweat thus keeping an athlete cool.   It was first used at the 1998 Commonwealth Games.                                                 csiro
A breakthrough for laptop computer users was made in wireless LANs.  People can now use computers without the problem of wire connection.  Many devices in the home use this technology.                                                        
X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging and XuM Microscopy                                          
Medicine has been improved with clearer images of ligaments, nerves, cartilage and tendons in research done by Steve Wilkins and his team.   The X-ray ultra-Microscope (XuM) has been developed from this technology.
1990s                                                                                                                                                                                                         csiro
Woolmark produced the sportswear for use by all athletes at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens.  Sportwool.
Scott and Binns did deep ocean floor exploration and discovered two large volcanic mounds. Regular ocean trips continue.
Genes can be switched off.  The blue rose was created. Gene silencing hairpin RNA.
Specimens from affected horses were taken for analysis and Hendra virus identified.
Linola flax is used in bread, linen and quality paper.
The ECOmmodore car uses half as much fuel as equivalent conventional cars.  Low emission motor vehicles.
Victoria commissioned CSIRO to carry out the Port Phillip Bay environmental study.
Wax from water used to wash wool can be used as potting mix.  Sirolan CF fertilizer.
The Solospun weaving attachment is easier on long fibre worsted wool blend yarns.
It is not commonly known that WiFi is an Australian invention.
X-ray phase contrast imaging made it possible to see the internal structure of objects.
A scanning microscope is used to focus on small features in objects using XuM microscopy.
Air Cargo Scanner                                                        
Neutrons and gamma-rays are used to view non-metal objects in airport luggage.  Drugs and explosives show up more clearly because the actual shape of the object can be seen.
Annodex Digital Media                                                    
Dr Silvia Webb noted that people wanted audio and video to be interactive in a web page.  An open source CMWebbrowser using Annodex media has links within audiovideo to other audiovideo, then back again to initial content                                                                                
Australian Cereal Rust Control Program                                                
Dr Evans Lagudah has found markers for resistance against fungi disease and identified the genes (Lr34) used by fungi to spread diseases such as powdery mildew, stripe rust, stem rust and leaf rust.   The goal is stacking resistant genes., i.e. Breeding disease resistant wheat.                                                                                        
Bollgard II Cotton Strain                                        
This insect resistant strain of cotton was created by putting two genes from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis into cotton.  A caterpillar, Helicoverpa, eats toxic proteins that is produced by the cotton and dies.   Ingard cotton containing one gene was released in 1996.
Bovilis Vaccine                                              
Dr Chris Prideaux developed the Bovilus MH vaccine for the Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD) in cattle in 2004.  The bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica (MH) causes the sickness mainly in feed lot cattle.                                                                                                                                                                                              
Bt Control of Worms in Livestock                                          
Andrew Kotze's work involves the use of bacillus thuringiensis insecticide on pasture to control nematodes such as barber's pole worms infestation in livestock.  The current use of anthelmintic drugs contaminates meat.                                             
Carbon Nanotube Yarn Sheets                                           
CSIRO and the University of Texas identified a way to make yarn from nanotubes in 2005.  Commercial manufacture is possible and yarn sheets are stronger than steel.  Uses include LEDs, electric sensors and artificial muscles.
Double Pulsar Discovery                                                                                                             
The Parkes Radio Telescope was a major contributor to the discovery of the double pulsar system in 2003.  Five countries were involved in the project that identified one star orbiting another.                                                             
Funnelback Panoptic Search engine                                        
This search engine is effectively used for retrieving information from large organizations from databases of millions of items in different formats, namely, HTML, XML, PDF, Word, Excel and images.     Csiro inventions
This is a SQUID magnetic tensor gradiometer to detect magnetic minerals below the ocean floor specifically designed to be used from the air.  This is part of a concerted effort by CSIRO to create exploration mechanisms for use on land, sea and in the air under the OCEANMAG umbrella.
Gigabit Super WiFi                                          
A wireless network operating in the extremely fast 6 gigabit range was in operation at CSIRO.  It is much faster that existing WiFi.  Data transfer speeds are phenomenal at 60 Hz.  Computer data WiFi will soon travel as fast as cable.
Honeybee Security                                                   
Because of the importance of pollination from European honeybees, pests and diseases of this valuable insect were investigated.  A third of what we eat is vegetables and fruit pollinated by bees.
HySSIL Concrete                                               
Dr Swee Liang Mak led a team which made blocks of aerated cement.  They were found to be impact resistant, non-flammable and effective as insulation.  Moreover, being very light they were easy to transport.                                                                      
Insulin-IGF Receptor Structure                                                         
Colin Ward and his team mapped the 3D structure of the insulin receptor on a cell in 2006.  Protein was crystallised then bombarded with X-rays.  This opens the way for new therapies in treating diabetes.                                                    
Shape and density clearly shows up with the air cargo scanner.
Annodex digital media indexing content of videos is a major breakthrough. Firefox now has a new plugin.
The gene was identified in a crop rather than a lab plant.  Australian cereal rust control program.
With the new Bollgard II cotton strain only 20 per cent of insecticide is needed vis-a-vis other cotton.
Anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics are not needed so much now.  Bovilis vaccine.
Carbon nanotube yarn sheets was a combined project of CSIRO with the NanoTech Institute of the University of Texas.
The Double Pulsar proves that Einstein's theory of relativity in regard to gravity is correct.
A company can even search its goods and services within the organization.using funnelback panoptic search engine.
The Australian National Broadband Network is examining gigabit super wifi for use in the outback.
A concerted effort is needed to protect the honeybee from early extinction.
Time and costs are reduced with HySSIL concrete.
Exploration is  much faster with GETMAG than ocean based methods.
The nature of the insulin receptor is finally understood now that Insulin-IGF receptor structure is known.
A new use for an established insecticide. Bt controll of worms in livestock, bacillus thuringiensis.
2000s                                                                                                                                                                                                csiro inventions
Landguard Pesticide Residue Treatment                                                       
A treatment for reducing pesticide residue was formulated, winning the DuPont Innovation Award in 2006.  Cotton irrigation waste water was treated and in 30 minutes organophosphate levels were reduced by 99 per cent.
Single, dual and triple axis magnetic sensors are used to measure magnetic fields much weaker than the earth's magnetic field.  Deeply buried deposits of nickel for example can be detected clearly separated from surrounding material.  Similar system to that used in OCEANMAG below.
Murray-Darling Project                                                              
This "breadbasket" region for Australian vegetables was analysed by Tom Hatton and Bill Young.  A computer model for assessing possible future climate change on groundwater and surface water resources resulted.
NovoSorb Biodegradable Polymer                                                         
Healing of damaged cartilage and bone fractures is problemmatic.  In this procedure perfected in 2005 a scaffold is created with a bonding agent around which new tissue forms.  Ultimately the scaffold is absorbed by the body.
Magnetic Gradient Tensor Measurements (MGTM) can be taken to survey shallow areas of the ocean to detect sources of minerals.  OCEANMAG calculates detected and predicted magnetic fields to determine where minerals are.
QEMSCAN Mineral Analysis                                             
X-rays together with an electron microscope rapidly analyses the mineral makeup of samples automatically, without being monitored.  It is widely used in the mining sector where knowledge of what amount of valuable minerals is in a sample is paramount.
Rubber from Resilin                                 
Insects jump around using an elastic protein similar to gluten and elastic.  Spiders use it to make webs.  A team at CSIRO found a way to make this artificially in the lab in 2005 from fruitfly.  The substance is 97 per cent elastic.
SilviScan Wood Evaluation                                                   
Dr Robert Evan's system of analysing wood and wood fiber ascertains the most suitable end use of the selected material.  Properties can be measured 1,000 times faster.  Assessments are used for tree improvement programs.
Sirolan Fleecescan                                         
Wool fiber is measured for quality by using portable instruments using the laserscan system.  Samples are taken when sheep are shorn.  They are then tested before the wool classer does his job.
Sirolan Laserscan                                               
CSIRO made a machine that measures the quality of small pieces of fiber taken from different clothing material.  Fiber diameter, curvature and distribution are important to measure market quality.
High voltage, high wattage capacitors store electricity then quickly release it.  They are constructed using nano-technology.  Being more efficient they can increase battery life.
T-mag Casting                                                
This process of casting high-integrity magnesium alloy makes a lightweight product at low cost that is friendly to the environment and energy efficient.  The finished product can be welded.
  It is ideal for production of motor vehicles.                                                                    
Total Wellbeing Diet                                            
This guide to losing weight, took Australia by storm.  Peter Clifton and Manny Noakes did research and recorded their findings: those who ate a high protein diet lost weight while others who ate carbohydrate rich food did not.
Lan Lam put supercapacitors to work in batteries which were 70 percent cheaper to produce and gave 50 per cent more power.  Charge and discharge was much quicker thus improving an electric vehicle's acceleration and braking.                                                                                                        
LANDTEM is a land based electromagnetic superconducting sensor system.
Sheep dip wastewater can now be cleansed with Landguard pesticide residue treatment.
The Murray Darling project is providing policy-makers and planners with a sound basis for making decisions about future water allocations.
Novosorb biodegradable polymer is delivered by syringe as a paste to damaged joints.
OCEANMAG enables salt water observations to be distinguished from oil deposits.
Dregs are evaluated with QEMSCAN mineral analysis.
Ordinary rubber deteriorates so it is no good for medical use.  Rubber from Resilin has a long life.
Material for wood fibre products can be more easily analysed.  SilviScan wood evaluation.
Woolgrowers are applauding the Sirolan Fleecescan system.
Valuation of natural fibers is more accurate using Sirolan Laserscan.
Research into supercapacitors will lead to even smaller more powerful mobile phones.
With T-mag casting new cars will be made of magnesium not alumininium.
The total wellbein diet is a scientifically proven method of dieting.
Ultrabatteries will be cheaper and more efficient than conventional batteries.
Furniture Casters is one of the Inventions in Australian Technology.
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Ressearch by Dr Doug Waterhouse improved Australian science with the Aerogard formula.
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